TitleFluorescent spectroscopy paired with parallel factor analysis for quantitative monitoring of phenanthrene biodegradation and metabolite formation.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsHuizenga, JM, Semprini, L
Date Published2023 Mar
KeywordsBiodegradation, Environmental, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Phenanthrenes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Spectrometry, Fluorescence

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of environmental contaminants released into the environment from both natural and anthropogenic sources that are associated with carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic health effects. Many remediation strategies for the treatment of PAH contaminated material, including bioremediation, can lead to the formation of toxic transformation products. Analytical techniques for PAHs and PAH transformation products often require extensive sample preparation including solvent extraction and concentration, chromatographic separation, and mass spectrometry to identify and quantify compounds of interest. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescent spectroscopy paired with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) is an approach for analyzing PAHs that eliminates the need for extensive sample preparation and separation techniques before analysis. However, this technique has rarely been applied to monitoring PAH biotransformation and formation of PAH metabolites. The objectives of this research were to compare an established targeted analytical method to two-dimensional fluorescent spectroscopy and combined EEM-PARAFAC methods to monitor phenanthrene degradation by a bacterial pure culture, Mycobacterium Strain ELW1, identify and quantify phenanthrene transformation products, and derive kinetic constants for phenanthrene degradation and metabolite formation. Both phenanthrene and its primary transformation product, trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, were identified and quantified with the EEM-PARAFAC method. The value of the EEM-PARAFAC method was demonstrated in the superiority of sensitivity and accuracy of quantification to two-dimensional fluorescent spectroscopy. Quantification of targets and derivation of kinetic constants using the EEM-PARAFAC method were validated with an established gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to use an EEM-PARAFAC method to monitor, identify, and quantify both PAH biodegradation and PAH metabolite formation by a bacterial pure culture.

Alternate JournalChemosphere
PubMed ID36621684